I think most people have missed the point. The original poster is a "design student" not a researcher for Nike or Adidas.
This seems like a very good student assignment to reconcile conflicting design demands and I would be very interested to see the solution.
Sprints - very light, generally larger spike plater, no support under heel
Middle/long distance - light generally smaller spike plate and very modest support under heel to take into account heel strike not seen in sprints.
Jumps (LJ/TJ) - generally larger spike plate but more rigidity that sprints and addition of heel cup for TJ
HJ - Semi-rigid sole with integrated spike plate and heel spikes and limit on heel/forefoot rise (as per earlier comments)
PV - either like sprinter or LJ spikes
JT - generally like HJ but more robust overall and rounded continuous toe cover to stop spike plate being torn off when dragged in delivery. Longest spikes allowed for all shoes (see IAAF specifications mentioned above).
SP - no spikes! relatively slick flat sole and rounded continuous toe cover for gliders and rounded sole and toe cover for spinners. Different Shore scale determines "stickiness" of sole and preferences depend on technique and skill.
DT - same as SP shoe for spinners
HT - same as SP shoe for spinners except also rounded heel coverage. Some designs suitable for SP/HT/DT
Hope that helps.